What Are Exosomes?

Exosomes are small vesicles ranging from 30-120 nanometers that are found in nearly all eukaryotic fluids and facilitate a range of important cellular functions. They transfer:

  • DNA
  • RNA
  • Proteins (cytokines, chemokines)

Exosomes can alter the function of target cells. They’re increasingly being recognised for their critical role in intercellular communication between cells.

Exosomes can travel through different bodily fluids to reach cells in different parts of the body to facilitate the aforementioned communication. Extracellular vesicles consist of exosomes, macrovesicles, and apoptotic bodies, which release directly from the cell membrane into the intracellular matrix.

Studies found that microvesicles from endothelial progenitor cells fight kidney damage from ischemic events by packaging miRNA responsible for activating regenerative programs in the kidney.